Week 1 : Importance of semiconductor devices and their diverse applications. Introduction to semiconductors, concept of energy bands and how bands form. Effective mass of electrons, E-k diagram. Concept of holes. Concept of Fermi level, Fermi-Dirac distribution. Doping (extrinsic & intrinsic semiconductor), density of states.
Week 2 : Equilibrium electron-hole concentration, temperature-dependence. Carrier scattering and mobility, velocity saturation, Drift-diffusion transport
Week 3 : Excess carrier decay & recombination, charge injection, continuity equation, quasi-Fermi level
Week 4 : p-n junction: static behaviour (depletion width, field profile), p-n junction under forward & reverse bias, current equations, generation-recombination current and reference to typical devices.
Week 5 : Zener and avalanche breakdown, Capacitance-voltage profiling, metal/semiconductor junction – Ohmic and Schottky contacts, reference to device applications.
Week 6 : MOS capacitor, charge/field/energy bands, accumulation, inversion, C-V (high and low frequencies), deep depletion, Real MOS cap: Flat-band & threshold voltage, Si/SiO2 system.
Week 7 : MOSFET: structure and operating principle, derivation of I-V, gradual channel approximation, substrate bias effects, sub-threshold current and gate oxide breakdown. Control of threshold voltage, short channel effects. Moore’s Law and CMOS scaling
Week 8 : Introduction to compound semiconductors & alloys, commonly used compound semiconductors, heterostructure band diagrams and basics of MODFET & HEMT, introduction to quantum well, applications of heterostructure device technologies
Week 9 : BJT: working principle, DC parameters and current components, base transport factor, Early Effect, charge control equation & current gain, need for HBT. Applications of BJTs/HBTs in real-life.
Week 10 : (Basics of) - transistors for high-speed logic, transistors for high frequency (RF), transistors for high power switching, transistors for memories, transistors for low noise, transistors for the future.
Week 11 : Solar cells: principle, efficiency, Fill factor, Shockley-Quiesser limit, silicon solar cells, multi-junction solar cell, Photodetectors: operation, figures of merit (responsivity, QE, bandwidth, noise, Detectivity), examples from IR to UV detectors.
Week 12 : LEDs: working principle, radiative/non-radiative recombination, various types of efficiencies (EQE, WPE, IQE), light extraction and escape cone. Blue LED and the Nobel Prize, visible LEDs and chromaticity.