Week 1 : Introduction, 1D symmetry, Concept of 2D symmetry and lattices, notations of symmetry elements, space groups in 2D, 3D lattices, 32 point
groups and their notations, crystal systems and Bravais lattices.
Week 2 : Stereographic projections, Laue symmetry; glide planes, screw axes and their notations, space groups, equivalent points, space group symmetry
Week 3 : Miller Indices, crystallographic planes and directions, close pack structures, linear density, planar density, Miller-Bravais indices for hexagonal
systems, various ceramic structures (NaCl, ZnS, CaF2, CsCl etc.), octahedral and tetrahedral sites etc.
Week 4 : What are X-rays, generation and classification of X-ray, X-ray sources, diffraction of X-rays, Braggâ€™s law.The reciprocal lattice, reciprocal
relationship, Braggâ€™s law in reciprocal space, Ewaldâ€™s sphere and sphere of reflection
Week 5 : Methods of crystal growth, identification of phases and morphologies, in-situ cryo crystallization, crystal growth under external stimuli etc.
Week 6 : Data collection strategies, Laue Method, Oscillation, rotation and precession methods. L-P corrections, structure factor, scaling, interpretation of
intensity data, temperature factor, symmetry from intensity statistics
Week 7 : Structure factor and Fourier synthesis, Friedelâ€™s law; exponential, vector and general forms of structure factor, determination of systematic
absences for various symmetry or lattice centering, FFT, Anomalous scattering and absolute configuration.
Week 8 : Phase problem, Direct Methods, structure invariants and semi invariants, probability methods, Phase determination in practice,
Patterson Methods, Patterson Symmetry, completion of structure solution, ï„F synthesis.
Week 9 : Refinement by Fourier synthesis, refinement by ï„F synthesis, Refinement by least squares method, weighting functions, Goodness-of-Fit (GOF)
parameter, treatment of non-hydrogen atoms, and treatment of hydrogen atoms, treatment of disordered structures.
Week 10 : Crystal selection, indexing of crystals, data collection, data reduction, space group determination, structure solution and refinement using
SHELXS97 and SHELXL97, introduction to crystallographic packages (APEX II suite, OLEX2, WinGx, PLATON) and IUCr validation of the data
Week 11 : Methodology, geometrical basis of powder X-ray diffraction, applications of PXRD: determination of accurate lattice parameters, identification of
new/unknown phases, applications in pharmaceutical industry.
Week 12 : Applications of powder X-ray diffraction: Structure determination from PXRD and Reitveld method for structure refinement, indexing of PXRD,
handling of PXRD using DASH.
BOOKS AND REFERENCES
1.X-ray structure determination: A Practical Guide (2nd Ed.) by George H. Stout and Lyle H Jensen, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1989.
2.Fundamentals of Crystallography (2nd Ed.) by C. Giacovazzo, Oxford University Press, USA, 2002
3.X-ray analysis and The Structure of Organic Molecules (2nd Ed.) Wiley-VCH, New York, 1996
4.Chemical Applications of Group Theory (3rd Ed.) by F. A. Cotton, Wiley-India Edition, India, 2009.